What is DNA -function structure and all information
What is DNA? How many types of DNA are there? Discovery of DNA and what is the full form? Functional Structure of DNA ? how does DNA work?What is DNA
Today, through this post, we will provide you all the important information related to DNA like what is DNA, its working structure etc. Because there are many people in all of us who must have heard the name of DNA but they do not know much about it. As we all know that the body of every organism is made up of many cells and DNA is a biological unit present in the cells of each living being . DNA is present in all biological organisms like humans, animals, trees, plants etc. If you also want to know about DNA in detail, then definitely read this post of ours till the end.
What is DNA
DNA is found in the center of the cells of an organism, which is like a long ladder-like biological molecule. In the human body , DNA is present in the mitochondria of the cell, which we also know as mitochondrial DNA . Almost every cell in the human body except red blood cells contains DNA or genetic code. It is present inside all types of organisms which is responsible for the development, growth, reproductive function of life.
The most surprising thing is that if the DNA present in the human body is unraveled, it is so long that it can reach the Sun 3 times and reach back to Earth. DNA exists in the human body in the form of chromosomes which are the basic unit of genetics. Which is transferred or transferred from one generation to another.
He gets the DNA of both the parents even before birth. For your information, let us tell you that mitochondrial DNA can be obtained only by the mother. Mitochondria are located above the nucleus of the DNA cell.
Discovery and Full form of DNA
DNA was discovered in 1953 by two scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick . For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962. The full form of DNA is “Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid”. It is considered a nucleic acid because it is found in the nucleus. Through DNA , you can find out about the future offspring of any person like his hair color, eye color etc. Apart from this, diseases that may occur in the future can also be detected. DNA is said to be immortal because it is transferred from generation to generation.
Types of DNA
A-DNA is coiled to the right similar to B-DNA. Dehydrated DNA is of type A, which protects the DNA during extreme conditions. Protein binding also removes the solvent from the DNA and creates type A DNA.
This is the most common type of DNA; and coiled to the right. Most of the B-type DNA is structured according to normal physiological conditions.
Z-DNA is the left-hand side DNA, where there is a left-sided bi-helix in a zig-zag pattern. It is found beyond the starting site of the gene and is therefore believed to play some role in the regulation of the gene. Z-DNA was discovered by Andres Wang and Alexander Rich.
How does DNA work?
Like we just told you above that its length is 3 times as long from the earth to the sun. 1 gram of DNA can store up to 713 bytes of data. 99.9 percent of people in the world have the same DNA. The structure of DNA is called double helix. DNA is the most important unit of the human body. DNA forms several types of RNA , which operate and control the process of protein synthesis.
The main function of DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins using the genetic code. Since the DNA of each organism contains many genes, different types of proteins can be made. Proteins are the main functional and structural molecules in organisms. In addition to storing genetic information, the functions of DNA include:
transfer of genetic information from one cell to its daughters and from one generation to the next
Uniform distribution of DNA during cell division
Structure Of DNA
The information in DNA is assembled as a code composed of four chemical bases: adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine . Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of the bases are the same in all people. The sequence or sequence of these bases decides the information available to build and maintain an organism. Of the three components of the DNA structure, sugar forms the basis of the DNA molecule. It is also called deoxyribose . The nitrogenous bases of opposite strands form hydrogen bonds, forming a ladder-like structure.What is DNA
Some special points related to DNA
1-) Urine samples and blood are used to test the cheek cells for DNA.
2-) The structure of DNA present in the human body is similar to the DNA of banana, cabbage and chimpanzee.
3-) In the human body, about 10,000 to 10 lakh DNAs are destroyed every day and new ones are made in their place.
4-) The most surprising thing is that information about all the species of the world can be obtained in just one teaspoon of DNA.
5-) Internet data from all over the world can be stored in just 2 grams of DNA.
6-) Twenty thousand to twenty five thousand genes are present in the human body.
7-) DNA is present in every human cell. When cells divide, DNA makes a copy of itself so that each type of DNA can reach each type of cell.
😎 If the DNA is spread completely, it can come again 600 times by going from the earth to the sun.
9-) The DNA of all humans is 99.9 percent the same.
10-) DNA can be destroyed by the sun’s UV rays
Which sugar is found in DNA ?
deoxyribose and ribose
glucose and mannose
Glucose and Maltose
lactose and sucrose
How does DNA copy itself?
DNA making a copy of itself or copying itself is a very special process, also known as semiconservative copying, during this process the DNA works to make a copy of itself.What is DNA
DNA completes its replication in three steps.
When DNA makes its copy, its process begins at known points. DNA helicase separates the two DNA strands through a process called its replication fork, which is a separate replication process.
2- Growth of DNA
DNA polymerase reads the nucleotides on the template strand and creates a new strand by adding complementary nucleotides one after the other. As such if it reads an adenine on the template strand, it adds thymine on the complementary strand. When nucleotides are added to the strand, some gaps are created between the strands. These gaps are called Okazaki fragments. These gaps or nicks are sealed by ligases.What is DNA
3- Termination process
The termination of DNA during its copying, which is opposite to the origin, leads to the copying process towards the end. Such a process is completed and the DNA retains its chain.